open import Cat.Diagram.Coproduct.Indexed
open import Cat.Instances.Sets.Complete
open import Cat.Diagram.Colimit.Base
open import Cat.Diagram.Initial
open import Cat.Prelude

module Cat.Instances.Sets.Cocomplete where


# Sets is cocomplete🔗

open Initial


Before proving that the category of sets is cocomplete, as a warm-up exercise, we prove that the category of sets admits indexed coproducts, and furthermore, that these are disjoint: all of the coproduct inclusions are monomorphisms, and distinct inclusions have initial images. This will be illustrative of a minor sticking point that will come up in the construction of arbitrary colimits.

Sets-has-coproducts : ∀ {κ ℓ} → has-indexed-coproducts (Sets (κ ⊔ ℓ)) κ
Sets-has-coproducts {κ} {ℓ} {I = I} F = coprod where


The coproduct of the family $F : I \to \mathbf{Sets}$ is given by the type $\sum F$. However, this type is in general not a set! Consider a family of sets indexed by the circle. Its total space will, by necessity, be a groupoid rather than a set.

However, we can always truncate the sum down to a set, and it turns out that this truncation does serve as a coproduct of the family in the category of sets. The point here is that, since the objects of $\mathbf{Sets}$ are.. well, sets, they can’t have any interesting paths, by definition. A grim slogan: In the category of Sets, nobody can hear your paths scream.

  sum : Type (κ ⊔ ℓ)
sum = Σ[ i ∈ I ] ∣ F i ∣

open Indexed-coproduct
open is-indexed-coproduct
coprod : Indexed-coproduct (Sets _) F
coprod .ΣF = el ∥ sum ∥₀ squash
coprod .ι i x = inc (i , x)
coprod .has-is-ic .match {Y = Y} f =
∥-∥₀-elim (λ _ → Y .is-tr) λ { (i , x) → f i x } {- 1 -}
coprod .has-is-ic .commute = refl
coprod .has-is-ic .unique {Y = Y} f p = funext
(∥-∥₀-elim (λ _ → is-prop→is-set (Y .is-tr _ _)) λ x → happly (p _) _)


Note that, in the construction of match above, we used the fact that $Y$ (the common codomain of all the $f_i$) is a set to eliminate from the truncation — by definition, $Y$ can’t tell that $\sum F$ might have had some extra paths we squashed away.

## Colimits🔗

Perfectly dually to the construction of limits in $\mathbf{Sets}$, rather than taking the equaliser of a product, we take the coequaliser of a sum. The same considerations about truncation level that apply for arbitrary coproducts apply to arbitrary colimits: fortunately, the construction of set-coequalisers already includes a truncation.

Sets-is-cocomplete : ∀ {ι κ o} → is-cocomplete ι κ (Sets (ι ⊔ κ ⊔ o))
Sets-is-cocomplete {ι} {κ} {o} {D = D} F = to-colimit (to-is-colimit colim) where
module D = Precategory D
module F = Functor F
open _=>_
open make-is-colimit

sum : Type _
sum = Σ[ d ∈ D.Ob ] ∣ F.₀ d ∣

rel : sum → sum → Type _
rel (X , x) (Y , y) = Σ[ f ∈ D.Hom X Y ] (F.₁ f x ≡ y)


The precise coequaliser we take is the quotient of $\sum F$ by the relation (generated by) identifying together all those points $(X, x)$ and $(Y, y)$ whenever there exists a map $(X \xrightarrow{f} Y) \in \mathcal{D}$ such that $F(f)(x) = y$.

By the same truncation nonsense as above, we can apply Coeq-rec to eliminate from our quotient to the coapex of any other cocone over $F$; The family of maps $\psi$ respects the quotient essentially by definition.

  univ : ∀ {A : Set (ι ⊔ κ ⊔ o)}
→ (eps : ∀ j → ∣ F.F₀ j ∣ → ∣ A ∣)
→ (∀ {x y} (f : D.Hom x y) → ∀ Fx → eps y (F.F₁ f Fx) ≡ eps x Fx)
→ sum / rel
→ ∣ A ∣
univ {A} eps p =
Coeq-rec (A .is-tr)
(λ { (x , p) → eps x p })
(λ { ((X , x) , (Y , y) , f , q) → sym (p f x) ∙ ap (eps _) q})

colim : make-is-colimit F (el! (sum / rel))
colim .ψ x p = inc (x , p)
colim .commutes f = funext λ _ → sym (quot (f , refl))
colim .universal {A} eps p x = univ {A} eps (λ f → happly (p f)) x
colim .factors eps p = refl
colim .unique {A} eps p other q = funext λ x →
Coeq-elim-prop
(λ x →  A .is-tr (other x) (univ {A} eps (λ f → happly (p f)) x))
(λ x → happly (q (x .fst)) (x .snd))
x


# Coproducts are disjoint🔗

As a final lemma, we prove that coproducts in $\mathbf{Sets}$, as constructed above, are disjoint. However, this does not apply to arbitrary coproducts; To prove that the injections are monomorphisms, we require that the indexing type be a set.

module _ {κ} {I : Set κ} {F : ∣ I ∣ → Set κ} where
private module coprod = Indexed-coproduct (Sets-has-coproducts {ℓ = κ} F)

Set-disjoint-coprods : is-disjoint-coproduct (Sets κ) {S = coprod.ΣF} F coprod.ι
Set-disjoint-coprods = coprod where
open is-disjoint-coproduct
open is-indexed-coproduct


We already know that the coproduct is a coproduct (who would have guessed, honestly) — so it remains to show that the injections are monic, the summands intersect, and the intersections of different summands are empty. The intersections are cheap: Sets is finitely complete, so all pullbacks exist, in particular the pullback of $F_i \to \sum F \leftarrow F_j$.

    coprod : is-disjoint-coproduct _ _ _
coprod .is-coproduct = coprod.has-is-ic
coprod .summands-intersect i j = Sets-pullbacks _ _


To prove that the injections are monic, we use our assumption that the family $F$ was indexed by a set: The sum $\sum F$ then is also a set, so we can get it out from under the truncation in the definition of coproduct.

    coprod .injections-are-monic _ g h path = funext go where abstract
path′ : Path (∀ c → Σ _ (λ x → ∣ F x ∣)) (λ c → _ , g c) (λ c → _ , h c)
path′ i c = ∥-∥₀-elim {B = λ _ → Σ _ (∣_∣ ⊙ F)} (λ x → hlevel!)
(λ x → x) (path i c)

q : ∀ {c} → ap fst (happly path′ c) ≡ refl
q = I .is-tr _ _ _ _

go : ∀ c → g c ≡ h c
go c = subst (λ e → PathP (λ i → ∣ F (e i) ∣) (g c) (h c)) q
(ap snd (happly path′ c))


The same thing happens in proving that different injections have disjoint images: We must project out a path $i = j$ from a path $\| (i,-) = (j,-) \|$ — using that they are in a set to eliminate from the truncation — to prove $\bot$ using the assumption that $i ≠ j$.

    coprod .different-images-are-disjoint i j i≠j os = contr map uniq where
map : Σ[ i ∈ ∣ F i ∣ ] Σ _ (λ x → _) → ∣ os ∣
map (i , j , p) = absurd (i≠j (ap (∥-∥₀-elim (λ _ → I .is-tr) fst) p))

uniq : ∀ x → map ≡ x
uniq _ = funext λ where
(_ , _ , p) → absurd (i≠j (ap (∥-∥₀-elim (λ _ → I .is-tr) fst) p))