open import 1Lab.Type.Sigma
open import 1Lab.Univalence
open import 1Lab.Type.Pi
open import 1Lab.HLevel
open import 1Lab.Equiv
open import 1Lab.Path
open import 1Lab.Type

module 1Lab.Univalence.SIP where


# Structure Identity Principle🔗

In mathematics in general, it’s often notationally helpful to identify isomorphic structures (e.g.: groups) in a proof. However, when this mathematics is done using material set theory as a foundations, this identification is merely a shorthand — nothing prevents you from distinguishing isomorphic groups in ZFC by, for instance, asking about membership of a particular set in the underlying set of each group.

In univalent mathematics, it’s a theorem that no family of types can distinguish between isomorphic structures. Univalence is this statement, but for types. For structures built out of types, it seems like we would need a bit more power, but in reality, we don’t!

“Structure Identity Principle” is the name for several related theorems in Homotopy Type Theory, which generically say that “paths on a structure are isomorphisms of that structure”.

For instance, the version in the HoTT Book says that if a structure S on the objects of a univalent category S can be described in a certain way, then the category of S-structured objects of C is univalent. As a benefit, the Book version of the SIP characterises the homomorphisms of S-structures, not just the isomorphisms. As a downside, it only applies to set-level structures.

record
Structure {ℓ₁ ℓ₂} (ℓ₃ : _) (S : Type ℓ₁ → Type ℓ₂) : Type (lsuc (ℓ₁ ⊔ ℓ₃) ⊔ ℓ₂)
where

constructor HomT→Str
field


The material on this page, especially the definition of is-univalent and is-transport-str, is adapted from Internalizing Representation Independence with Univalence. The SIP formalised here says, very generically, that a Structure is a family of types S : Type → Type, and a type with structure is an inhabitant of the total space Σ S.

What sets a Structure apart from a type family is a notion of homomorphic equivalence: Given an equivalence of the underlying types, the predicate is-hom (A , x) (B , y) eqv should represent what it means for eqv to take the x-structure on A to the y-structure on B.

   is-hom : (A B : Σ _ S) → (A .fst ≃ B .fst) → Type ℓ₃


As a grounding example, consider equipping types with group structure: If (A , _⋆_) and (B , _*_) are types with group structure (with many fields omitted!), and f : A → B is the underlying map of an equivalence A ≃ B, then is-hom would be - the “usual” definition of group homomorphism.

open Structure public

Type-with : ∀ {ℓ ℓ₁ ℓ₂} {S : Type ℓ → Type ℓ₁} → Structure ℓ₂ S → Type _
Type-with {S = S} _ = Σ _ S

private variable
ℓ ℓ₁ ℓ₂ ℓ₃ : Level
A : Type ℓ
S T : Type ℓ → Type ℓ₁


A structure is said to be univalent if a homomorphic equivalence of structures A, B induces a path of the structures, over the univalence axiom — that is, if is-hom agrees with what it means for “S X” and “S Y” to be identified, where this identification is dependent on one induced by univalence.

is-univalent : Structure ℓ S → Type _
is-univalent {S = S} ι =
∀ {X Y}
→ (f : X .fst ≃ Y .fst)
→ ι .is-hom X Y f ≃ PathP (λ i → S (ua f i)) (X .snd) (Y .snd)


The notation A ≃[ σ ] B stands for the type of σ-homomorphic equivalences, i.e. those equivalences of the types underlying A and B that σ identifies as being homomorphic.

_≃[_]_ : Σ _ S → Structure ℓ S → Σ _ S → Type _
A ≃[ σ ] B =
Σ[ f ∈ A .fst ≃ B .fst ]
(σ .is-hom A B f)


## The principle🔗

The structure identity principle says that, if S is a univalent structure, then the path space of Σ S is equivalent to the space of S-homomorphic equivalences of types. Again using groups as a grounding example: identification of groups is group isomorphism.

SIP : {σ : Structure ℓ S} → is-univalent σ → {X Y : Σ _ S} → (X ≃[ σ ] Y) ≃ (X ≡ Y)
SIP {S = S} {σ = σ} is-univ {X} {Y} =
X ≃[ σ ] Y                                                       ≃⟨⟩
Σ[ e ∈ X .fst ≃ Y .fst ] (σ .is-hom X Y e)                       ≃⟨ Σ-ap (ua , univalence⁻¹) is-univ ⟩≃
Σ[ p ∈ X .fst ≡ Y .fst ] PathP (λ i → S (p i)) (X .snd) (Y .snd) ≃⟨ Iso→Equiv Σ-pathp-iso ⟩≃
(X ≡ Y)                                                          ≃∎


The proof of the SIP follows essentially from univalence, and the fact that Σ types respect equivalences. In one fell swoop, we convert from the type of homomorphic equivalences to a dependent pair of paths. By the characterisation of path spaces of Σ types, this latter pair is equivalent to X ≡ Y.

sip : {σ : Structure ℓ S} → is-univalent σ → {X Y : Σ _ S} → (X ≃[ σ ] Y) → (X ≡ Y)
sip σ = SIP σ .fst


# Structure combinators🔗

Univalent structures can be built up in an algebraic manner through the use of structure combinators. These express closure of structures under a number of type formers. For instance, if S and T are univalent structures, then so is λ X → S X → T X.

The simplest case of univalent structure is the constant structure, which is what you get when you equip a type X with a choice of inhabitant of some other type Y, unrelated to X. Since the given function is f : A → B, it can’t act on T, so the notion of homomorphism is independent of f.

Constant-str : (A : Type ℓ) → Structure {ℓ₁} ℓ (λ X → A)
Constant-str T .is-hom (A , x) (B , y) f = x ≡ y

Constant-str-univalent : {A : Type ℓ} → is-univalent (Constant-str {ℓ₁ = ℓ₁} A)
Constant-str-univalent f = _ , id-equiv


The next simplest case is considering the identity function as a structure. In that case, the resulting structured type is that of a pointed type, whence the name Pointed-str.

The name Pointed-str breaks down when it is used with some of the other combinators: A type equipped with the product of two pointed structures is indeed a “bipointed structure”, but a type equipped with maps between two pointed structures is a type equipped with an endomorphism, which does not necessitate a point.

Pointed-str : Structure ℓ (λ X → X)
Pointed-str .is-hom (A , x) (B , y) f = f .fst x ≡ y


This is univalent by ua-pathp≃path, which says PathP (ua f) x y is equivalent to f .fst x ≡ y.

Pointed-str-univalent : is-univalent (Pointed-str {ℓ})
Pointed-str-univalent f = ua-pathp≃path _


If S and T are univalent structures, then so is their pointwise product. The notion of a S × T-homomorphism is that of a function homomorphic for both S and T, simultaneously:

Product-str : Structure ℓ S → Structure ℓ₂ T → Structure _ (λ X → S X × T X)
Product-str S T .is-hom (A , x , y) (B , x' , y') f =
S .is-hom (A , x) (B , x') f × T .is-hom (A , y) (B , y') f

Product-str-univalent : {σ : Structure ℓ₁ S} {τ : Structure ℓ₂ T}
→ is-univalent σ → is-univalent τ
→ is-univalent (Product-str σ τ)
Product-str-univalent {S = S} {T = T} {σ = σ} {τ} θ₁ θ₂ {X , x , y} {Y , x' , y'} f =
(σ .is-hom (X , x) (Y , x') _ × τ .is-hom (X , y) (Y , y') _) ≃⟨ Σ-ap (θ₁ f) (λ _ → θ₂ f) ⟩≃
(PathP _ _ _ × PathP _ _ _)                                   ≃⟨ Iso→Equiv Σ-pathp-iso ⟩≃
PathP (λ i → S (ua f i) × T (ua f i)) (x , y) (x' , y')       ≃∎


If S and T are univalent structures, then so are the families of functions between them. For reasons we’ll see below, this is called Str-function-str (a rather redundant name!) instead of Function-str.

Str-function-str : Structure ℓ₁ S → Structure ℓ₂ T → Structure _ (λ X → S X → T X)
Str-function-str {S = S} σ τ .is-hom (A , f) (B , g) h =
{s : S A} {t : S B} → σ .is-hom (A , s) (B , t) h
→ τ .is-hom (A , f s) (B , g t) h

Str-function-str-univalent : {σ : Structure ℓ₁ S} {τ : Structure ℓ₂ T}
→ is-univalent σ → is-univalent τ
→ is-univalent (Str-function-str σ τ)
Str-function-str-univalent {S = S} {T = T} {σ = σ} {τ} θ₁ θ₂ eqv =
Π-impl-cod≃ (λ s → Π-impl-cod≃ λ t → function≃ (θ₁ eqv) (θ₂ eqv)) ∙e funext-dep≃


## Example: magmas🔗

We provide an example of applying the SIP, and the structure combinators: . Recall that a magma is a set equipped with a binary operation, with no further conditions imposed. In HoTT, we can relax this even further: An is a Type - that is, an - equipped with a binary operation.

private
binop : Type → Type
binop X = X → X → X


We can impose a Structure on binop by applying nested Function-str and Pointed-str. Since this structure is built out of structure combinators, it’s automatically univalent:

  ∞-Magma : Structure lzero binop
∞-Magma = Str-function-str Pointed-str (Str-function-str Pointed-str Pointed-str)

∞-Magma-univ : is-univalent ∞-Magma
∞-Magma-univ =
Str-function-str-univalent {τ = Str-function-str Pointed-str Pointed-str}
Pointed-str-univalent
(Str-function-str-univalent {τ = Pointed-str}
Pointed-str-univalent
Pointed-str-univalent)


The type of ∞-Magma homomorphisms generated by this equivalence is slightly inconvenient: Instead of getting we get something that is parameterised over two paths:

  _ : {A B : Type-with ∞-Magma} {f : A .fst ≃ B .fst}
→ ∞-Magma .is-hom A B f
≡ ( {s : A .fst} {t : B .fst} → f .fst s ≡ t
→ {x : A .fst} {y : B .fst} → f .fst x ≡ y
→ f .fst (A .snd s x) ≡ B .snd t y)
_ = refl


This condition, although it looks a lot more complicated, is essentially the same as the standard notion:

  fixup : {A B : Type-with ∞-Magma} {f : A .fst ≃ B .fst}
→ ((x y : A .fst) → f .fst (A .snd x y) ≡ B .snd (f .fst x) (f .fst y))
→ ∞-Magma .is-hom A B f
fixup {A = A} {B} {f} path {s} {t} p {s₁} {t₁} q =
f .fst (A .snd s s₁)     ≡⟨ path _ _ ⟩≡
B .snd (f .fst s) (f .fst s₁) ≡⟨ ap₂ (B .snd) p q ⟩≡
B .snd t     t₁     ∎


As an example, we equip the type of booleans with two ∞-magma structures, one given by conjunction, one by disjunction, and prove that not identifies them, as ∞-magmas:

  open import Data.Bool

  Conj : Type-with ∞-Magma
Conj .fst = Bool
Conj .snd false false = false
Conj .snd false true  = false
Conj .snd true  false = false
Conj .snd true  true  = true

  Disj : Type-with ∞-Magma
Disj .fst = Bool
Disj .snd false false = false
Disj .snd false true  = true
Disj .snd true  false = true
Disj .snd true  true  = true


I claim that not is a isomorphism between Conj and Disj:

  not-iso : Conj ≃[ ∞-Magma ] Disj
not-iso .fst = not , not-is-equiv
not-iso .snd = fixup {A = Conj} {B = Disj} {f = _ , not-is-equiv} λ where
false false → refl
false true → refl
true false → refl
true true → refl


It’s not clear that this should be the case, especially since the case analysis obfuscates the result further. However, writing and for the actions of Conj and Disj (as one should!), then we see that not-iso says exactly that

From this and the SIP we get that Conj and Disj are the same

  Conj≡Disj : Conj ≡ Disj
Conj≡Disj = sip ∞-Magma-univ not-iso


We have a similar phenomenon that happens with NAND and NOR:

  Nand : Type-with ∞-Magma
Nand .fst = Bool
Nand .snd false false = true
Nand .snd false true  = true
Nand .snd true  false = true
Nand .snd true  true  = false

  Nor : Type-with ∞-Magma
Nor .fst = Bool
Nor .snd false false = true
Nor .snd false true  = false
Nor .snd true  false = false
Nor .snd true  true  = false

  not-iso' : Nand ≃[ ∞-Magma ] Nor
not-iso' .fst = not , not-is-equiv
not-iso' .snd = fixup {A = Nand} {B = Nor} {f = _ , not-is-equiv} λ where
false false → refl
false true → refl
true false → refl
true true → refl


# Transport structures🔗

As an alternative to equipping a type family S : Type → Type with a notion of S-homomorphism, we can equip it with a notion of action. Equipping a structure with a notion of action canonically equips it with a notion of homomorphism:

Equiv-action : (S : Type ℓ → Type ℓ₁) → Type _
Equiv-action {ℓ = ℓ} S = {X Y : Type ℓ} → (X ≃ Y) → (S X ≃ S Y)

Action→Structure : {S : Type  ℓ → Type ℓ₁} → Equiv-action S → Structure _ S
Action→Structure act .is-hom (A , x) (B , y) f = act f .fst x ≡ y


A transport structure is a structure S : Type → Type with a choice of equivalence action α : Equiv-action S which agrees with the “intrinsic” notion of equivalence action that is induced by the computation rules for transport.

is-transport-str : {S : Type ℓ → Type ℓ₁} → Equiv-action S → Type _
is-transport-str {ℓ = ℓ} {S = S} act =
{X Y : Type ℓ} (e : X ≃ Y) (s : S X) → act e .fst s ≡ subst S (ua e) s


While the above definition of transport structure is natural, it can sometimes be unwieldy to work with. Using univalence, the condition for being a transport structure can be weakened to “preserves the identity equivalence”, with no loss of generality:

preserves-id : {S : Type ℓ → Type ℓ} → Equiv-action S → Type _
preserves-id {ℓ = ℓ} {S = S} act =
{X : Type ℓ} (s : S X) → act (id , id-equiv) .fst s ≡ s


The proof is by equivalence induction: To show something about all Y : Type, x : X ≃ Y (with X fixed), it suffices to cover the case where Y is X and e is the identity equivalence. This case is by the assumption that σ preserves id.

preserves-id→is-transport-str
: (σ : Equiv-action S)
→ preserves-id σ → is-transport-str σ
preserves-id→is-transport-str {S = S} σ pres-id e s =
EquivJ (λ _ e → σ e .fst s ≡ subst S (ua e) s) lemma' e
where


Unfortunately we can not directly use the assumption that σ preserves id in the proof, but it can be used as the final step in an equational proof:

    lemma' : σ (id , id-equiv) .fst s ≡ subst S (ua (id , id-equiv)) s
lemma' =
sym (
subst S (ua (id , id-equiv)) s ≡⟨ ap (λ p → subst S p s) ua-id-equiv ⟩≡
transport refl s               ≡⟨ transport-refl _ ⟩≡
s                              ≡⟨ sym (pres-id s) ⟩≡
σ (id , id-equiv) .fst s       ∎
)

sym-transport-str :
{S : Type ℓ → Type ℓ₂} (α : Equiv-action S) (τ : is-transport-str α)
{X Y : Type ℓ} (e : X ≃ Y) (t : S Y)
→ equiv→inverse (α e .snd) t ≡ subst S (sym (ua e)) t
sym-transport-str {S = S} α τ e t =
sym (transport⁻transport (ap S (ua e)) (ae.from t))
·· sym (ap (subst S (sym (ua e))) (τ e (ae.from t)))
·· ap (subst S (sym (ua e))) (ae.ε t)
where module ae = Equiv (α e)


If S is a transport structure, then its canonical equipment as a Structure is univalent:

is-transport→is-univalent : {S : Type ℓ → Type ℓ₁} (a : Equiv-action S)
→ is-transport-str a
→ is-univalent (Action→Structure a)
is-transport→is-univalent {S = S} act is-tr {X , s} {Y , t} eqv =
act eqv .fst s ≡ t              ≃⟨ path→equiv (ap (_≡ t) (is-tr eqv s)) ⟩≃
subst S (ua eqv) s ≡ t          ≃⟨ path→equiv (sym (PathP≡Path (λ i → S (ua eqv i)) s t)) ⟩≃
PathP (λ i → S (ua eqv i)) s t  ≃∎


We can mix and match these different notions of structure at will. For example, a more convenient definition of function univalent structure uses an equivalence action on the domain:

Function-str : Equiv-action S → Structure ℓ T → Structure _ (λ X → S X → T X)
Function-str {S = S} act str .is-hom (A , f) (B , g) e =
(s : S A) → str .is-hom (A , f s) (B , g (act e .fst s)) e


This alternative definition of structure is univalent when T is a univalent structure and S is a transport structure:

Function-str-univalent
: (α : Equiv-action S) → is-transport-str α
→ (τ : Structure ℓ T) → is-univalent τ
→ is-univalent (Function-str α τ)
Function-str-univalent {S = S} {T = T} α α-tr τ τ-univ {X , f} {Y , g} eqv =
((s : S X) → τ .is-hom (X , f s) (Y , _) eqv)     ≃⟨ Π-cod≃ (λ s → τ-univ eqv ∙e path→equiv (ap (PathP (λ i → T (ua eqv i)) (f s) ∘ g) (α-tr _ _))) ⟩≃
((s : S X) → PathP (λ i → T (ua eqv i)) (f s) _)  ≃⟨ (hetero-homotopy≃homotopy e⁻¹) ∙e funext-dep≃ ⟩≃
_                                                 ≃∎


To see why Function-str is more convenient than the previous definition - which is why it gets the shorter name - it’s convenient to consider how the pointed structure acts on equivalences: not at all. Recall the definition of ∞-magma equivalence generated by Str-function-str:

private
_ : {A B : Type-with ∞-Magma} {f : A .fst ≃ B .fst}
→ ∞-Magma .is-hom A B f
≡ ( {s : A .fst} {t : B .fst} → f .fst s ≡ t
→ {x : A .fst} {y : B .fst} → f .fst x ≡ y
→ f .fst (A .snd s x) ≡ B .snd t y)
_ = refl


Let’s rewrite ∞-Magma using Function-str to see how it compares:

  ∞-Magma' : Structure lzero binop
∞-Magma' = Function-str id (Function-str id Pointed-str)

_ : {A B : Type-with ∞-Magma} {f : A .fst ≃ B .fst}
→ ∞-Magma' .is-hom A B f
≡ ( (x y : A .fst) → f .fst (A .snd x y) ≡ B .snd (f .fst x) (f .fst y))
_ = refl


Much better! This gets rid of all those redundant paths that were previously present, using the fact that λ X → X does not need to act on equivalences.

In general, transport structures are closed under all of the same operations as univalent structures, which begs the question: Why mention univalent structures at all? The reason is that a definition of structure homomorphism is very often needed, and the data of a univalent structure is perfect to use in the definition of SIP.

The closure properties of transport structures are in this <details> tag to keep the length of the page shorter
Constant-action : (A : Type ℓ) → Equiv-action {ℓ = ℓ₁} (λ X → A)
Constant-action A eqv = _ , id-equiv

Constant-action-is-transport
: {A : Type ℓ} → is-transport-str {ℓ = ℓ₁} (Constant-action A)
Constant-action-is-transport f s = sym (transport-refl _)

Id-action-is-transport : is-transport-str {ℓ = ℓ} {ℓ₁ = ℓ} id
Id-action-is-transport f s = sym (transport-refl _)

Product-action : Equiv-action S → Equiv-action T → Equiv-action (λ X → S X × T X)
Product-action actx acty eqv = Σ-ap (actx eqv) λ x → acty eqv

Product-action-is-transport
: {α : Equiv-action S} {β : Equiv-action T}
→ is-transport-str α → is-transport-str β
→ is-transport-str (Product-action α β)
Product-action-is-transport α-tr β-tr e s =
Σ-pathp (α-tr e (s .fst)) (β-tr e (s .snd))

Function-action : Equiv-action S → Equiv-action T → Equiv-action (λ X → S X → T X)
Function-action actx acty eqv = function≃ (actx eqv) (acty eqv)

Function-action-is-transport
: {α : Equiv-action S} {β : Equiv-action T}
→ is-transport-str α → is-transport-str β
→ is-transport-str (Function-action α β)
Function-action-is-transport {S = S} {α = α} {β = β} α-tr β-tr eqv f =
funext λ x → ap (β eqv .fst ∘ f) (sym-transport-str α α-tr eqv x)
∙ β-tr eqv (f (subst S (sym (ua eqv)) x))


Most mathematical objects of interest aren’t merely sets with structure. More often, the objects we’re interested in have stuff (the underlying type), structure (such as a SNS), and properties - for instance, equations imposed on the structure. A concrete example may help:

• A pointed is a pointed type equipped with a binary operation;

• A monoid is a pointed with additional data witnessing that a) the type is a set; b) the operation is associative; and c) the point acts as a left- and right- identity for the operation.

Fortunately, the SIP again applies here: If you augment a standard notion of structure with axioms, then identification of structures with axioms is still isomorphism of the underlying structures. For this, we require that the axioms are valued in propositions.

module _
(σ : Structure ℓ S)
(axioms : (X : _) → S X → Type ℓ₃)
where


First, the notion of structure that you get is just a lifting of the underlying structure σ to ignore the witnesses for the axioms:

  Axiom-str : Structure ℓ (λ X → Σ[ s ∈ S X ] (axioms X s))
Axiom-str .is-hom (A , s , a) (B , t , b) f =
σ .is-hom (A , s) (B , t) f


Then, if the axioms are propositional, a calculation by equivalence reasoning concludes what we wanted: Axiom-str is univalent.

  module _
(univ : is-univalent σ)
(axioms-prop : ∀ {X} {s} → is-prop (axioms X s)) where

Axiom-str-univalent : is-univalent Axiom-str
Axiom-str-univalent {X = A , s , a} {Y = B , t , b} f =
σ .is-hom (A , s) (B , t) f
≃⟨ univ f ⟩≃
PathP (λ i → S (ua f i)) s t
≃⟨ Σ-contract (λ x → PathP-is-hlevel 0 (contr b (axioms-prop b))) e⁻¹ ⟩≃
Σ[ p ∈ PathP (λ i → S (ua f i)) s t ] PathP (λ i → axioms (ua f i) (p i)) a b
≃⟨ Iso→Equiv Σ-pathp-iso ⟩≃
_
≃∎


Here, another facet of the trade-offs between transport and univalent structures make themselves clear: It’s possible (albeit less than straightforward) to add axioms to a univalent structure, but without imposing further structure on the axioms themselves, it is not clear how to add axioms to a transport structure.

Regardless, a very useful consequence of the SIP is that axioms can be lifted from equivalent underlying structures. For instance: can be defined as both unary numbers (the construction of Nat), or as binary numbers. If you prove that Nat is a monoid, and Nat ≃ Bin as pointed ∞-magmas, then Bin inherits the monoid structure.

transfer-axioms
: {σ : Structure ℓ S} {univ : is-univalent σ}
{axioms : (X : _) → S X → Type ℓ₃}
→ (A : Type-with (Axiom-str σ axioms)) (B : Type-with σ)
→ (A .fst , A .snd .fst) ≃[ σ ] B
→ axioms (B .fst) (B .snd)
transfer-axioms {univ = univ} {axioms = axioms} A B eqv =
subst (λ { (x , y) → axioms x y }) (sip univ eqv) (A .snd .snd)


# A language for structures🔗

The structure combinators can be abstracted away into a language for defining structures. A Str-term describes a structure, that may be interpreted into a family of types, and defines both transport and univalent structures.

data Str-term ℓ : (ℓ₁ : Level) → (Type ℓ → Type ℓ₁) → Typeω where
s-const : ∀ {ℓ₁} (A : Type ℓ₁) → Str-term ℓ ℓ₁ (λ X → A)
s∙ : Str-term ℓ ℓ (λ X → X)

_s→_ : ∀ {ℓ₁ ℓ₂} {S} {T} → Str-term ℓ ℓ₁ S → Str-term ℓ ℓ₂ T
→ Str-term ℓ (ℓ₁ ⊔ ℓ₂) (λ X → S X → T X)
_s×_ : ∀ {ℓ₁ ℓ₂} {S} {T} → Str-term ℓ ℓ₁ S → Str-term ℓ ℓ₂ T
→ Str-term ℓ (ℓ₁ ⊔ ℓ₂) (λ X → S X × T X)

infixr 30 _s→_ _s×_


Since each term of the language corresponds to one of the combinators for building univalent structures, a pair of mutually recursive functions lets us derive a Structure and an action on equivalences from a term, at the same time.

Term→structure : (s : Str-term ℓ ℓ₁ S) → Structure ℓ₁ S
Term→action : (s : Str-term ℓ ℓ₁ S) → Equiv-action S

Term→structure (s-const x) = Constant-str x
Term→structure s∙ = Pointed-str
Term→structure (s s→ s₁) = Function-str (Term→action s) (Term→structure s₁)
Term→structure (s s× s₁) = Product-str (Term→structure s) (Term→structure s₁)

Term→action (s-const x₁) x = _ , id-equiv
Term→action s∙ x = x
Term→action (s s→ s₁) = Function-action (Term→action s) (Term→action s₁)
Term→action (s s× s₁) = Product-action (Term→action s) (Term→action s₁)


The reason for this mutual recursion is the same reason that transport structures are considered in the first place: Function-str gives much better results for the definition of homomorphism than can be gotten directly using Str-function-str. As an example of using the language, and the generated definition of homomorphism, consider pointed ∞-magmas:

private
Pointed∞Magma : Structure lzero _
Pointed∞Magma = Term→structure (s∙ s× (s∙ s→ (s∙ s→ s∙)))

_ : {A B : Type-with Pointed∞Magma} {f : A .fst ≃ B .fst}
→ Pointed∞Magma .is-hom A B f
≡ ( (f .fst (A .snd .fst) ≡ B .snd .fst)
× ((x y : A .fst) → f .fst (A .snd .snd x y)
≡ B .snd .snd (f .fst x) (f .fst y)))
_ = refl


A homomorphic equivalence of pointed ∞-magmas is an equivalence of their underlying types that preserves the basepoint and is homomorphic over the operation. The use of Term→action in contravariant positions is responsible for making sure the computed is-hom doesn’t have any redundant paths in argument positions.

A mutually inductive argument proves that Term→action produces transport structures, and that Term→structure produces univalent structures. At every case, the proof is by appeal to a lemma that was proved above.

Term→structure-univalent : (s : Str-term ℓ ℓ₁ S) → is-univalent (Term→structure s)
Term→action-is-transport : (s : Str-term ℓ ℓ₁ S) → is-transport-str (Term→action s)

Term→structure-univalent (s-const x) = Constant-str-univalent
Term→structure-univalent s∙ = Pointed-str-univalent
Term→structure-univalent (s s→ s₁) =
Function-str-univalent
(Term→action s) (Term→action-is-transport s)
(Term→structure s₁) (Term→structure-univalent s₁)
Term→structure-univalent (s s× s₁) =
Product-str-univalent {σ = Term→structure s} {τ = Term→structure s₁}
(Term→structure-univalent s) (Term→structure-univalent s₁)

Term→action-is-transport (s-const x) = Constant-action-is-transport
Term→action-is-transport s∙ = Id-action-is-transport
Term→action-is-transport (s s→ s₁) =
Function-action-is-transport {α = Term→action s} {β = Term→action s₁}
(Term→action-is-transport s) (Term→action-is-transport s₁)
Term→action-is-transport (s s× s₁) =
Product-action-is-transport {α = Term→action s} {β = Term→action s₁}
(Term→action-is-transport s) (Term→action-is-transport s₁)


## Descriptions of structures🔗

To make convenient descriptions of structures-with-axioms, we introduce a record type, Str-desc, which packages together the structure term and the properties that are imposed:

record Str-desc ℓ ℓ₁ S ax : Typeω where
field
descriptor : Str-term ℓ ℓ₁ S

axioms : ∀ X → S X → Type ax
axioms-prop : ∀ X s → is-prop (axioms X s)

Desc→Fam : ∀ {ax} → Str-desc ℓ ℓ₁ S ax → Type ℓ → Type (ℓ₁ ⊔ ax)
Desc→Fam {S = S} desc X =
Σ[ S ∈ S X ]
(desc .Str-desc.axioms _ S)

Desc→Str : ∀ {ax} → (S : Str-desc ℓ ℓ₁ S ax) → Structure _ (Desc→Fam S)
Desc→Str desc = Axiom-str (Term→structure descriptor) axioms
where open Str-desc desc

Desc→is-univalent : ∀ {ax} → (S : Str-desc ℓ ℓ₁ S ax) → is-univalent (Desc→Str S)
Desc→is-univalent desc =
Axiom-str-univalent
(Term→structure descriptor) axioms
(Term→structure-univalent descriptor) (λ {X} {s} → axioms-prop X s)
where open Str-desc desc