open import 1Lab.Prelude

open import Algebra.Magma

module Algebra.Magma.Unital where


# Unital Magmas🔗

A unital magma is a magma equipped with a two-sided identity element, that is, an element $e$ such that $e \star x = x = x \star e$. For any given $\star$, such an element is exists as long as it is unique. This makes unitality a property of magmas rather then additional data, leading to the conclusion that the identity element should be part of the record is-unital-magma instead of its type signature.

However, since magma homomorphisms do not automatically preserve the identity element1, it is part of the type signature for is-unital-magma, being considered structure that a magma may be equipped with.

record is-unital-magma (identity : A) (_⋆_ : A → A → A) : Type (level-of A) where
field
has-is-magma : is-magma _⋆_

open is-magma has-is-magma public

field
idl : {x : A} → identity ⋆ x ≡ x
idr : {x : A} → x ⋆ identity ≡ x

open is-unital-magma public


Since A is a set, we do not have to worry about higher coherence conditions when it comes to idl or idr - all paths between the same endpoints in A are equal. This allows us to show that being a unital magma is a property of the operator and the identity:

is-unital-magma-is-prop : {e : A} → {_⋆_ : A → A → A} → is-prop (is-unital-magma e _⋆_)
is-unital-magma-is-prop x y i .is-unital-magma.has-is-magma = is-magma-is-prop
(x .has-is-magma) (y .has-is-magma) i
is-unital-magma-is-prop x y i .is-unital-magma.idl = x .has-is-set _ _ (x .idl) (y .idl) i
is-unital-magma-is-prop x y i .is-unital-magma.idr = x .has-is-set _ _ (x .idr) (y .idr) i


We can also show that two units of a magma are necessarily the same, since the products of the identities has to be equal to either one:

identities-equal
: (e e' : A) {_⋆_ : A → A → A}
→ is-unital-magma e _⋆_
→ is-unital-magma e' _⋆_
→ e ≡ e'
identities-equal e e' {_⋆_ = _⋆_} unital unital' =
e      ≡⟨ sym (idr unital') ⟩≡
e ⋆ e' ≡⟨ idl unital ⟩≡
e' ∎


We also show that the type of two-sided identities of a magma, meaning the type of elements combined with a proof that they make a given magma unital, is a proposition. This is because left-right-identities-equal shows the elements are equal, and the witnesses are equal because they are propositions, as can be derived from is-unital-magma-is-prop

has-identity-is-prop
: {⋆ : A → A → A}
→ is-magma ⋆ → is-prop (Σ[ u ∈ A ] (is-unital-magma u ⋆))
has-identity-is-prop mgm x y = Σ-prop-path (λ x → is-unital-magma-is-prop)
(identities-equal (x .fst) (y .fst) (x .snd) (y .snd))


By turning both operation and identity element into record fields, we obtain the notion of a unital magma structure on a type that can be further used to define the type of unital magmas, as well as their underlying magma structures.

record Unital-magma-on (A : Type ℓ) : Type ℓ where
field
identity : A
_⋆_ : A → A → A

has-is-unital-magma : is-unital-magma identity _⋆_

has-Magma-on : Magma-on A
has-Magma-on .Magma-on._⋆_ = _⋆_
has-Magma-on .Magma-on.has-is-magma = has-is-unital-magma .has-is-magma

open is-unital-magma has-is-unital-magma public

Unital-magma : (ℓ : Level) → Type (lsuc ℓ)
Unital-magma ℓ = Σ (Type ℓ) Unital-magma-on

Unital-magma→Magma : {ℓ : _} → Unital-magma ℓ → Magma ℓ
Unital-magma→Magma (A , unital-mgm) = A , Unital-magma-on.has-Magma-on unital-mgm


This allows us to define equivalences of unital magmas - two unital magmas are equivalent if there is an equivalence of their carrier sets that preserves both the magma operation (which implies it is a magma homomorphism) and the identity element.

record
Unital-magma≃ (A B : Unital-magma ℓ) (e : A .fst ≃ B .fst) : Type ℓ where
private
module A = Unital-magma-on (A .snd)
module B = Unital-magma-on (B .snd)

field
pres-⋆ : (x y : A .fst) → e .fst (x A.⋆ y) ≡ e .fst x B.⋆ e .fst y
pres-identity : e .fst A.identity ≡ B.identity

has-magma≃ : Magma≃ (Unital-magma→Magma A) (Unital-magma→Magma B) e
has-magma≃ .Magma≃.pres-⋆ = pres-⋆

open Unital-magma≃

• One-sided identities

Dropping either of the paths involved in a unital magma results in a right identity or a left identity.

is-left-id : (⋆ : A → A → A) → A → Type _
is-left-id _⋆_ l = ∀ y → l ⋆ y ≡ y

is-right-id : (⋆ : A → A → A) → A → Type _
is-right-id _⋆_ r = ∀ y → y ⋆ r ≡ y


Perhaps surprisingly, the premises of the above theorem can be weakened: If $l$ is a left identity and $r$ is a right identity, then $l = r$.

left-right-identities-equal
: {⋆ : A → A → A} (l r : A)
→ is-left-id ⋆ l → is-right-id ⋆ r → l ≡ r
left-right-identities-equal {⋆ = _⋆_} l r lid rid =
l     ≡⟨ sym (rid _) ⟩≡
l ⋆ r ≡⟨ lid _ ⟩≡
r     ∎


This also allows us to show that a magma with both a left as well as a right identity has to be unital - the identities are equal, which makes them both be left as well as right identities.

left-right-identity→unital
: {_⋆_ : A → A → A} (l r : A)
→ is-left-id _⋆_ l → is-right-id _⋆_ r
→ is-magma _⋆_ → is-unital-magma l _⋆_
left-right-identity→unital l r lid rid isMgm .has-is-magma = isMgm
left-right-identity→unital l r lid rid isMgm .idl = lid _
left-right-identity→unital {_⋆_ = _⋆_} l r lid rid isMgm .idr {x = x} =
subst (λ a → (x ⋆ a) ≡ x) (sym (left-right-identities-equal l r lid rid)) (rid _)


1. Counterexample: The map $f : ({\mathbb{Z}}, *) \to ({\mathbb{Z}}, *)$ which sends everything to zero is a magma homomorphism, but does not preserve the unit of $({\mathbb{Z}}, *)$.↩︎