open import Cat.Diagram.Terminal
open import Cat.Diagram.Product
open import Cat.Prelude

import Cat.Functor.Bifunctor as Bifunctor
import Cat.Reasoning

module Cat.CartesianClosed.Base where


# Cartesian closed categories🔗

Recall that we defined a cartesian category to be one which admits all binary products, hence products of any finite positive cardinality. Such a category is called cartesian closed (abbreviation: ccc) if it has a terminal object (hence products of any natural number of objects), and, for any object $A$, the functor $- \times A$ has a right adjoint, to be denoted $[A,-]$.

The object $[A,B]$ provided by this functor is called the exponential of $B$ by $A$, and thus it is also written $B^A$. The adjunction is best understood in terms of isomorphisms between Hom-functors: In a ccc, the following Hom-sets are naturally isomorphic.

$\mathbf{Hom}(A \times B, C) \cong \mathbf{Hom}(A, [B,C])$

The right-to-left direction of this isomorphism is called currying; The left-to-right direction can thus be called uncurrying. Generally, if you have an object in one side, its image under the isomorphism is called its exponential transpose. The interpretation of $[A,B]$ is that it is the space of maps between $A$ and $B$. Indeed, every actual map $f : A \to B$ in the category corresponds to a unique map $\ulcorner f \urcorner : 1 \to [A,B]$ (called the name of $f$), by the following sequence of isomorphisms:

$\mathbf{Hom}(A,B) \cong \mathbf{Hom}(1 \times A, B) \cong \mathbf{Hom}(1, [A,B])$

record is-cc {o ℓ} (C : Precategory o ℓ) (cartesian : ∀ A B → Product C A B) : Type (o ⊔ ℓ) where
field
terminal  : Terminal C

open Cat.Reasoning C
open Binary-products C cartesian public

private
module ×-Bifunctor = Bifunctor {C = C} {C} {C} ×-functor

field
[_,-]      : Ob  → Functor C C
tensor⊣hom : ∀ A → ×-Bifunctor.Left A ⊣ ([ A ,-])

module [-,-] (a : Ob) = Functor [ a ,-]
module T⊣H {a : Ob} = _⊣_ (tensor⊣hom a)

[_,_] : Ob → Ob → Ob
[ A , B ] = [-,-].₀ A B


We now make the structure of a ccc more explicit.

module CartesianClosed {o ℓ} {C : Precategory o ℓ} {cart : ∀ A B → Product C A B} (cc : is-cc C cart) where
open Cat.Reasoning C
open Functor
open is-cc cc public
private variable X Y Z : Ob


Each pair of objects $X$, $Y$ gives rise to an evaluation map $\mathrm{ev} : [X, Y] \times X \to Y$. This is the counit of the tensor-hom adjunction. The adjuncts (the exponential transposes mentioned before) generated by a map $f$ give the currying and uncurrying transformations:

  ev : Hom ([ X , Y ] ⊗₀ X) Y
ev = T⊣H.counit.ε _

curry : Hom (X ⊗₀ Y) Z → Hom X [ Y , Z ]

  curry∘uncurry : ∀ {X Y Z} → is-left-inverse (curry {X} {Y} {Z}) uncurry